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The wrist is a complex joint that bridges the hand to the forearm. It is actually a collection of multiple bones and joints. The bones comprising the wrist include the distal ends of the radius and ulna, 8 carpal bones, and the proximal portions of the 5 metacarpal bones All of these bones participate in complex articulations that allow variable mobility of the hand. Relative to the forearm, the hand is capable of 3 degrees of freedom: (1) flexing and extending, (2) pronating and supinating, and (3) deviating ulnarly or radially in order to maintain mobility without sacrificing stability, the wrist joint has a complex configuration of ligaments.

One of the best ways to remember the order of the carpal bones is the pneumonic starting at the Scaphoid: Some (scaphoid) Lovers (Lunate) Try (Triquetrum) Positions (Pisiform) That (trapezium) They (trapezoid) Can't (Capitate) Handle (Hamate). 


Anatomy Review

Wrist Examination

Range of Motion

Upper Extremity Dermatomes

Upper Extremity Cutaneous Innervation

  • Please please please clear the Cervical Spine for any referral for a wrist injury, especially "Carpal Tunnel." If you notice the similarities of C6 and C7 dermatomes in the pictures above. It can easily mimic Carpal Tunnel. It's a good idea to clear and even treat the cervical spine for those patients that present with any wrist or elbow diagnosis. 


Flexor Tendon Repair Zone 1 - Twin City Orthopedics

Flexor Tendon Repair Zone 2-4 - Advanced Orthopedics

Distal Wrist Fx - Center for Orthopedics

Good resource on Scaphoid Fx